A subsoil drain, or subsoil drainage system, prevents water damage by channeling it away from the soil. In addition to providing safety for the home, garden, and other landscapes within a property, these devices function as security devices. They are unnoticed in a home and contribute to its security. This guide is all about subsoil drainage in detail.

Subsoil drainage

The subsoil drain is a drainage system installed in buildings to remove water from the soil around the building. To prevent soil from entering perforated or slotted pipes, geotextile material is often used to cover underground. Water can also be prevented from seeping into the road and other pathways when these devices are installed behind herbs.

Subsoil drainage is most commonly accomplished with underground pipes made from porous materials. There are numerous holes in the pipe so that water can seep through, while a porous material serves as a barrier to prevent soils and debris from entering and blocking it. It is also sometimes possible to filter water using rocks and pebbles. In some cases, it is possible to channel water away from properties by re-leveling the land and eliminating moisture build-up underground.

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Purpose of subsoil drainage

Subsoil drainage is a method of removing excess water from the soil below the surface. Subsoil drainage aims to prevent waterlogging and create optimal growing conditions for plants. It is particularly important in areas with heavy rainfall or poorly drained soils, where excess water can accumulate and cause damage to crops and other vegetation.

Subsoil drainage uses perforated pipes or other drainage materials to remove water from the soil and transport it to a designated drainage area. The pipes are typically installed at 60-90 cm below the soil surface. They are designed to collect and transport excess water away from the area.

One of the primary benefits of subsoil drainage is that it helps to maintain the soil structure and prevent soil erosion. Excess water can cause soil particles to become compacted, reducing pore space and making it difficult for plant roots to grow. By removing excess water from the soil, subsoil drainage helps to maintain a healthy soil structure and improve soil fertility.

Subsoil drainage is also important for maintaining the health of trees and other vegetation. Excess water can cause root rot and other diseases, weakening or killing plants.

Several problems can occur in your backyard if you have too much water. Waterlogged soils prevent plant roots from receiving oxygen and hinder their ability to absorb nutrients. Roots can rot, leaves can yellow, growth can be stunted, and ultimately the plant can die from these problems. Puddles are also present. Their appearance is undesirable, as well as the breeding grounds for bacteria, mosquitoes, and other insects that are harmful to human health. In addition to attracting vermin, excessive moisture also serves as a breeding ground.

Plants and gardens will benefit from subsoil drainage systems due to their healthy environment and the protection they can provide to your home. A permeable drain helps prevent soil beneath the home’s foundation from subsiding, causing cracks in the foundation. A foundation repair could become very costly if that happens. An out-of-pocket expense of this magnitude will result without the right insurance coverage.

Advantages of subsoil drainage

There are many benefits associated with these types of drainage systems, which are often installed in homes. Subsoil drains have a variety of benefits and positives, including:

  • The amount of water entering the landscape/building is drastically reduced.
  • Soil salinity is reduced, or the amount of salt in the soil is reduced.
  • By strengthening the soil, it improves its overall health.
  • In general, there is an increase in soil aeration, which means healthier plants and grass.
  • Plants, fruits, vegetables, and flowers grown in soil that has been drained of excess water will be of better quality.
  • A benefit of these systems is that they increase pasture rates and crop harvesting dates for farmers and other agricultural purposes.
  • Water does not get into the walls and landscaping of the home; therefore, structural damage to them is drastically reduced.
  • As the soil moisture decreases, the ground becomes more stable, so building foundations do not shift.

As they play such an essential role in the home, many homes already have an adequate system installed. Garden and natural spaces will not be healthy without them, as will homes that move and become damaged. Furthermore, they are essential for more effective and efficient farming for agricultural purposes, resulting from healthier soil.

Installation of subsoil drainage

Specialist plumbers should be consulted when designing and installing subsoil drainage systems. Each property is unique, and they will take a variety of factors into account when determining the best customized solution for each one. In addition to the location of the installation, several other factors will be taken into consideration.

It is important to consider the following factors:

The perimeter of a property should be covered with the system to prevent water from getting close to the foundations. Since only surface water must be drained away, not groundwater, it is recommended to install subsoil systems above natural water tables.

Installing pipes far enough from trees, preventing roots from growing into them, preventing water from accumulating in the garden, and placing the pipes at the lowest end are all ways to prevent blockages.

To relieve the pressure from the water, the system should be installed behind a retaining wall. Water cannot pass through most retaining walls since they are waterproof barriers. Their purpose is to support a specific amount of weight. A lack of drainage, however, causes pressure to build up and cracks to form. Walls can buckle if they are consistently pressured.


After heavy rains, your backyard may resemble a marsh, and a subsoil drainage system may help. The rainwater does not drain away when it rains because there is nowhere for it to go. Surface water can’t trickle through saturated soil because water cannot move in the ground quickly enough. It is possible for water to wreak havoc on your backyard and home, killing plants and causing damage to masonry and brickwork.

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FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

How does subsoil drainage work?

The groundwater table can remain well below the paved surface with subsoil drainage, thereby improving the soil moisture relationship. The principal objective of all drainage is to provide a uniform bearing value and strength to the subgrade.

Why is subsurface drainage advantageous?

Soils classified as poorly drained in humid regions can be improved to behave more like well-drained soils, leading to improved productivity and trafficability due to subsurface drainage.

What is the subsoil made up of?

While some decayed organic matter can be found in the subsoil, its principal constituent is weathered rocks and clay minerals. Water and nutrients are found in both layers and are used by plants for growth and photosynthesis by sending their roots into them.

Subsoil drain pipe size: what is it?

The internal diameter of pipes used in subsoil drainage systems has to be 65mm or 100mm, depending on the specification. HDPE pipe shall have a solid wall thickness of 5,0 mm and be manufactured from High-Density Polyethylene (HDPE).

How does drainage work in construction?

In drainage, water is artificially removed from the surface and the subsurface. Construction and civil engineering projects often involve drainage, which is necessary to avoid flooding. In most cases, effluent is conveyed from drains to sewers and then from sewers to treatment plants or outfalls.

What is the purpose of subsoil?

In terms of water absorption and drainage, the subsoil has a significant role to play. Getting the drainage right in your garden is essential for it to function well. Also, complex landscaping features like fences, patios, and paths are supported by the subsoil. If it weren’t for it, your garden would become a bottomless pit of slop whenever it rained.

The subsoil has what characteristics?

Under the surface of the ground is a layer of soil called subsoil. Sand, silt, and clay are all included in topsoil, but there is much less organic matter and humus and some small rocks mixed in, whereas topsoil has a more significant percentage of organic matter.

The subsoil is suitable for plants, isn’t it?

Growing plants in the subsoil aren’t nearly as good as growing in topsoil. It is common for builders not to pay attention to the topsoil versus the subsoil when they build a house. You can find subsoil and topsoil in your yard and garden. The subsoil is just as likely to be present as topsoil. Plants are unable to grow in subsoil unless it is improved.